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برنامه ریزی شهری Şehir planı - ژئو توریسم استان زنجان
 
برنامه ریزی شهری Şehir planı
جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری
سه شنبه 23 اسفند 1390 :: نویسنده : امید باقری

مقدمه:

از عملکرد کره زمین حدود 6/4 میلیارد سال می گذرد،طی این مدت به دلیل به عملکرد فرایندهای درونی و بیرونی ،

ساختار و سطح کره زمین تغییر یافته ،سازندهای زمین شناسی و اشکال زمین ریخت شناسی متنوعی شکل گرفته اند.1

باتوجه به این اصل که زمین مجددا پدید نخواهد آمد و زمان سپری شده تکرار نخواهد شد.2  طی دهه های اخیر توجه به

جنبه های کاربردی علوم زمین در زمینه های گردشگری ،منجر به پیدایش اصطلاحاتی مانند: میراث زمین شناسی ،ژئو

سایت، ژئوپارک،ژئوتوریسم شده است.ژئو توریسم که در زبان فارسی گردشگری زمین شناسی ترجمه شده است3 ،

اصطلاحاتی به نسبت جدید و بخشی از فعالیت های کلی گردشگری طبیعی (اکوتوریسم) است که هنوز به فرهنگ های

اصطلاحات راه نیافته است.4  بر اساس تعریف جغرافیای بین المللی و انجمن سیرو سیاحت امریکا،اگر به منظور دیدن

یک منظره خاص،حیات وحش،آگاهی از فرهنگ محلی خاص،کوهنوردی از یک کوه مشخص،قایقرانی در یک رودخانه به

محلی مسافرت کنید،شما یک گردشگر زمین شناسی(ژئو توریست) هستید.5

استان زنجان با مساحت 22164 کیلوتر مربع در شمال غربی ایران بین َ 35 33(سی وسه درجه و سی و پنج دقیقه) تا

15َ 37  عرض شمالی10َ 47 تا26َ 49 طول شرقی قرار دارد.6 ، ازنظر زمین شناسی بخشی از ایران مرکزی

وبراساس تقسیم بندی ریخت شناسی بخشی واحد شماال غربی است که توسط دره رود قزل اوزن از واحد های دیگر جدا ،می شود7  کوه های طارم ترکیبی از سازندهای آتش فشانی وآذرین مانند سازند سبز کرج و توده های  نفوذی  گرانیتی

است وکوه های چله خانه و قاجار به ترتیب 2724 و 2500 بلند ترین قله های این رشته کوه است. کوه سلطانیه وقله

27 20سیاه کوه به ترتییب   و 2700 متر ارتفاع دارند.

کوه بلقیس با ارتفاع 3332  متر در شمال غربی استان زنجان در مجاور منطقه باستانی تخت سلیمان تکاب قرار دارد

که بلند ترین نقطه استان می باشدوکمترین ارتفاع استان  حدود 250 متر در منطقه طارم در کنار دریاچه سد سفید رود

قرار دارد. غار کتله خور: به طول تقریبی 12 کیلو متر طولانی ترین غار ایران است 8 ، در حدود 160 کیلو متری

جنوب غربی زنجان قرار دارد. این غار در سال 1300 توسط اهالی منطقه زرین آباد کشف شد. ارتفاع بلند ترین نقطه

ان 2004 متر است.دیوارهای صاف، کف ناهموار و سقف بلند دهلیز بزرگ غار حکایت از تاریخی کهن دارد9  . صدمتر

87642ابتدای غار نفر از این محل که بیشتر ین تراکم بازدیدکنندگان در ایام نوروز بوده است.

معدن نمک چهر آباد:در 75 کیلومتری غربی زنجان شهر زنجان ،یک کیلومتری جنوب روستای حمزه لو قرار دارد.این

معدن از حدود نیمه دوم هزاره قبل از میلاد تاکنون به صورت ناپیوسته به عنوان معدن نمک مورد استفاده قرار گرفته

است.   کشف  6 مرد نمکی (مرد نمکی شماره یک در سال 1372و مردان نمکی شماره 2،3،4،5 در سال 1383) حاکی

از قدمت  معدن کاری در این قسمت از ایران است12. مرد نمکی شماره 6 نیز در سال 1386 کشف شد.بررسی های 

بیشتر در این معدن و حفظ آن به عنوان یکی از معادن قدیمی ایران علاوه بر اینکه از لحاظ میراث زمین حائز اهمیت

است،گنجینه با  ارزشی از وسا یل مورد استفاده در معدن کاری نیز هست این جایگاه نتنها برای مردم ایران بلکه برای بسیاری از مردم استان نیز ناشناخته می باشد.

مرد نمکی شماره یک در موزه ایران باستان  تهران و مردان دیگر در موزه رختشویخانه و عمارت ذوالفقاری نگهداری می شود.

دودکش جن :در بین متخصصان علوم زمین به ویژه زمین ریخت شناس ها (ژئو مورفولوژیست ها) عوارض ستونی

شکل بدون توجه به سنگ شناسی آنها هودو،دودکش جن و انگشت خدا نامیده اند.13  دودکش جن را می توان یکی از

بارزترین عوارض زمین ریخت شناسی استان ذکر کرد این دودکش ها در زبان محلی جین قایاسی می باشد به ویژه در

منطقه ماه نشان مردم محلی به آن آدم سنگی می گویند در آببر نیز نمونه هایی وجود دارد.در حدود پنج کیلومتری جنوب

روستای ماد اباد ماهنشان یکی از بزرگ ترین عوارض از این است که ارتفاع آن از سطح اب های آزاد 1780 متر قطر

ان در بخش استوانه ای حدود 3.5 متر در بخش تاج 7_6 متر است و به نوعی این عارضه می تواند مهم ترین جاذبه گردشگری ماهنشان به حساب آید.

سخن آخر: استان زنجان دارای قابلیت ها و پتانسیل های بسیار عالی گردشگری زمین شناسی، اقلیمی و تاریخی و

توریستی است بیایید به ایرانیان و جهانیان این قابلیبت ها را بشناسانیم و به توسعه پایدار این سرزمین زرخیز کمک
نماییم.

منابع:

1.Drandaki and Galanakis,2001-workshop geological heritage conservation in south-estern European countries,1st edition 2001,pro geo,UNESCO,IUG4s.

2.Torfason,H.2005-geological heritage and afforestation,conference effect of afforestation on ecosystems,landscape and rural development,abstract,

3.نبوی ،م ،ح 1378_گردشگری زمین شناسی،هجدهمین گردهمایی علوم زمین 25-27 بهمن 1378 سازمان زمین شناسی و اکتشافات معدنی

4.Joyce,e.B.2006 GEOLOGICAL HERITAGE OF AUSTRALIA

5.Buckley ,R 2003_ENVIRONMENTALINPUTS and outputs in wcotourism

6. سازمان جغرافیایی نیروهای مسلح 76-1375 نقشه های توپوگرافی 1:50000_1:10000

7.علایی طالقانی ،م، 1382 ژئومورفولوژی ایران ،انتشارات قومس چاپ دوم ص34

8.خبرگزاری میراث فرهنگی 24/12/1384

9.ارشدی،س، 1374 مقدمه ای بر غار کتله خور مجله پژوهشی علوم زمین شماره 11 صص33_32 انتشارات سازمان زمین شناسسی کشور

10.www.climbing.ir

11.سازمان همیاری شهرداری های زنجان،1378،گزارش سازمان همیاری

12.عالی،ا، 1384 مردان نمکی _پژوهشکده باستان شناسی خرداد1384 (مقاله مردان نمکی)

13.سبزه ای،م، 1369_واژه زمین شناسی و علو وابسته ،انتشارات جهاد دانشگاهی دانشگاه شهید باهنر اسفند 1369 چاپ سوم.

Email:u.bagheri6511@gmail.com


 

 

 

           

 

 

 





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